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The Philippines is one of the "Third World" countries

The Philippines is one of the "Third World" countries. It means that it has a high poverty rate, economic instability, and lack of essential human resources in comparison to the rest of the nations around the world. Research has exhibited that one of five people in the Philippines lives in extreme poverty and that it ranks 9th in the world for the number of children with stunted growth (Alindogan, 2019). Besides, the Asian Development Bank (2019) has conveyed that 21.6% of the Philippine population lived below the national poverty line in 2015, and 2.5% of the people are unemployed in 2018. Poverty mainly affects the health and security of the citizens. As a result, scholars have identified the root cause of poverty – the lack of education and inequality.

The lack of education is one of the most fundamental causes of poverty in the Philippines. Millions of children and adults remain deprived of educational opportunities that would later affect the social, cultural and economic components. The Philippine Statistics Authority reported that six out of ten families in 2016 and five out of ten families in 2017 have at least one member who did not complete a primary education (Valencia, 2018). The negligence to provide proper and necessary training to the citizens could lead to a high unemployment rate that would further result in the drastic decline of the country's economy, thus the emergence of poverty. It also has an adverse effect on the social aspect of the community. Uneducated citizens would not know about the correct laws and regulations of the country, which is essential to promote discipline. Therefore, when there is proper education, there is a high rate of literacy and a decrease in criminality and injustice.

Another cause of poverty in the Philippines is the inequitable distribution of resources and opportunities among its citizens. Research from the London School of Economics and Political Science (2017) have shown that the growing gap of the wealthiest and most deprived in the United Kingdom is directly linked to the higher rates of poverty. In the United States, they have found that income inequality was the most significant poverty-increasing factor. If the income will be equally distributed on average, the poverty rate would likely decrease. In comparison to the Philippines, if the government would focus on giving equal opportunities to the citizens particularly in job employment and educational facilities, there would be a positive impact on the economic growth of the country. However, this is far from a realistic scenario for the Philippines since inequality continues to strive. Therefore, international organizations such as the United Nations have enlisted the reduction of inequality within and among countries. It achieves to ensure equal opportunity and reduces inequalities of outcome for every citizen (n.d.).

 Poverty affects all the citizens of the country, from the social facet to the economy's growth. Poor health is one of the significant consequences. Globally, almost 14 million people a year suffer from poverty-related health conditions (Kellogg, 2018). People contract diseases because of contaminated water and lack of sanitation. Due to insufficient funds, the government cannot provide medical facilities and healthcare for the citizens. Another effect of poverty is the increase in crime rates. Studies have exhibited that poverty and crime have a positive relationship (Imran, Hosen, & Chowdhury, 2018). For instance, a person with a financial crisis will go with the most comfortable option to get money, even harming people. Therefore, poverty also affects the security and well-being of the citizens.

 Poverty remains a challenge in the Philippines, and it has affected the citizens in different aspects. It will continue to deteriorate the country's economy if the government does not give attention to the contributing causes of the problem. The identification of the factors is essential since it will enable people to develop strategies to lessen the consequences. One primary solution is giving an accessible education. With this solution, it will provide empowerment to the citizens and enables them to earn employment and possibly bend the curve of poverty.


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