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MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ECO-FRIENDLY COMPOSITE MATERIALS

1Palanisamy Sivasubramanian, 2K Mayandi, 2A Alavudeen, 2N Rajini

1Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankovil, Srivilliputhur. Tamilnadu

2Asso Prof, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankovil, Srivilliputhur. Tamilnadu

Email: sivaresearch948@gmail.com,

Mobile: +91-9746251316

ABSTRACT

Recently the Natural fiber as reinforced composites are becoming attractive and alternative for artificial fibers, and it's used in more applications in different specializations because of eco-friendly nature and sustainability. Natural fibers are very cheaper, environmentally shouted, and biodegradable. The properties of fiber strengthened compound composites have drawbacks like weak bonding, poor wettability, degradation at the fiber-matrix interface, and the damage of the fiber during the manufacturing process. To impressive development within the performance of rubber materials, the event of Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) is strengthened rubber composites were tried. In this paper, composite using PALF in an NR matrix material fabricated using compression moulding at 150°C and fabricated composite materials obtained a few of the tests like curing time, tensile strength, and tear strength were performed on three samples, and the results obtained for the three samples were analyzed.

KEYWORDS: Natural Fiber, Natural Rubber, Pineapple fiber, Tensile strength, tear strength.

















INTRODUCTION

Natural rubber is used in mounts because it combines properties. It offers high strength, excellent fatigue resistance, high resilience, low sensitivity to strain effects in dynamic applications, and excellent resistance to creep. Interest in natural fiber reinforced polymer composites is rapidly being used in industrial and research purposes. They are inexpensive, renewable, fully or partially recyclable, and can survive on lignocellulosic fibers such as banana, sisal, bamboo, and jute fibers. Compounds. It is a mainly high efficiency of the fiber and the smooth processing and elasticity of the rubber. Shorter fibers are unity-dependent compounds in an elastomer and have a right mix of strength and stiffness from fibers and elasticity from rubber. These compounds are using to make a variety of products, such as V-belts, hoses. Short fiber reinforced rubber alloys have many advantages over continuous fiber composites.

Natural rubber (NR) is known to exhibit many beautiful properties such as good oil resistance, low gas permeability, excellent wet grip, and rolling resistance. Natural rubber comes from latex polymerized isoprene, which has a small percentage of impurity. Limits the range of available attributes, and also the addition of sulfur and vulcanization is using to improve the properties of natural rubber.
Pineapple fiber is taking from the leaves of the pineapple plant. Availability, ease of extraction, the amount of fiber available after extraction from the leaves, mechanical properties compared with other available fibers were selected based on some criteria.

The paper deals with the fabrication process involved, testing methods conducted and the analysis of a few of the properties of PALF reinforced natural rubber composite materials.

From the literature reviewed, it was on pineapple fiber reinforced with NR Combination need to have attention. So the purpose of this work is,

To fabricate PALF reinforced natural rubber composite materials.
To analyze the mechanical properties like the tensile test and tear test.





MATERIALS AND METHODS

It describes the proposed methodology of the project, pattern making process to fabricate the PALF and natural rubber composite.

2.1 Materials

The following materials to be used to fabricate the composites

Natural Rubber, Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Sulphur, Stearic acid Accelerator, Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF)

2.2 Fiber Extraction

Fiber is extracted from the leaves of pineapple plant using a fiber extraction machine. The pineapple leaf is introduced into the machine, where it is beaten with massive cast iron impulses, which releases cellulose-bonding in the pineapple leaf—those results in a fiber with a ribbon-like structure.

Fig: 2.1 Fiber Extraction Machine
2.3 Fiber Preparation

The fiber is taken after extraction and dried under the sun to remove moisture. The dried fiber is extracted and then cut into different lengths of 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm with a total weight of 105 g for each length. The 0.5 cm fiber is dividing into 15 g, 30 g, and 60 g 3 weights. It is done simultaneously for 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm length of fiber.
2.4 Mixing of Composite

Natural rubber is first introduced between the two rollmill and allows it to grind correctly. The fibers of particular weights are added by placing them between the cylinders and allowing it to mix correctly. After the fiber and rubber are well mixed, the zinc oxide and stearic acid added and remixed. Then the accelerator F is added to the mixture, and finally, sulfur added. Further, the final mixture of the sample is taken as a sheet and cooled to room temperature.






Fig: 2.2 Two rollmill
2.5 Preparation of Mould

Based on the cure time obtained for a different sample, the mould of 10 15 0.2 cm is prepared in a hot hydraulic press, for natural rubber temperature is 150. ample is placed between two OHP sheets, and this is embedded between the upper and lower dies of the mould. High pressure is applied. Regular intervals of breathing are provided for the escape of air embedded within the fiber pressure is applied until the assigned cure time. Then the die is removed, and the mould is obtained and is allowed to cool down to room temperature. The mould is cut into different shapes for the preparation of the test specimen.

PREPARATION OF COMPOSITES
The extracted fiber is mixed with natural rubber in different ratios, and it is mixed thoroughly by rolling in a rolling mill, the cure time and temperature of the 10 different samples are found out using Rheometer, and a mould of the 10 different samples is prepared in the hydraulic press. Then the prepared mould is cut out into different shapes for carrying out a tear and tensile testing, and this is done using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM).

3.1 Test Specimen
From the obtained mould, three samples are cut for tensile testing and two samples for tear test. For tensile testing, the sample is cut into a dumbbell pattern, and the tear test sample is cut into a crescent (wave). The mould is cut using special mechanically operated cutters.



Fig 3.1Crescent Shaped  Test Specimen
Fig 3.2 Dumbbell Shaped Test Specimen







3.2 Mechanical Property Testing

3.2.1 Cure Time Test
10 g of every sample are taken to test the cure time. For natural rubber, the curing temperature is 150. 10 g of each sample placed between two dies in a rheometer, and the torque is used equally. Torque versus time graph obtained. The curing time is obtained when the torque value is constant over time. The optimal cure time at 150 was determined by using the Monsanto Rheometer (R-100). The optimal cure time corresponds to the time to achieve 90% of treatment (T90) calculated.
Optimum cure = [0.9(Lf – Li) + Li] Where Lf is max torque and Li is min torque.

3.2.2 Tensile Test
Tensile properties are the most widely tested properties of natural fiber-reinforced composites. Recently, investigations into the tensile properties of PALF reinforced composites have included the effect of melt mixing, solution mixing condition, fiber length, fiber loading, chemical treatment, fiber orientation, water absorption, and weathering effect. A tensile test is performed on the global test machine INSTRON 4411 and repaired using pneumatic holders in a dumbbell-shaped, UTM Ustron 4411. Extensometer coupled to a test model for measuring the extension. After the sample fixed, the load is hydraulically applied until the deformation occurs. Tensile stress and tensile strain diagram are obtained on the screen—the values ​​of tensile strength and the percentage of length obtained from a system.
3.2.3Tear Test
This test is performed on the global testing machine INSTRON 4411. The specimen is fixed in a crescent-shaped UTM Ustron 4411 using a pneumatic holder. The load is used, and the corresponding load vs. extension diagram is obtained on the screen. The value of the breaking load and tear strength is obtained on the screen.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The various tests performed in mechanical testing properties are like Cure test, tensile test, and Tear test.




4.1 Cure test
Optimum cure time at 150 was determined by using Monsanto Rheometer (R-100). The optimum cure time corresponds to the time to achieve 90per cent (t90) of the cure calculated from the formula.

Optimum cure = [0.9(Lf – Li) + Li] Where Lf is max torque and Li is min torque.












 Fig: 4.1 Cure test for pure Natural Rubber











Fig 4.2 Max Smpl 9(1.5cm, 60g m Fiber)      Fig 4.3 Min Smpl 7(1.5cm fiber length , 15gm Fiber)

From the above graphs obtained for 1.5cm fiber length composite, more considerable cure time is recorded for sample 9 (1.5cm, 60gm fiber) is 10.36min and least cure time for sample 7(1.5cm, 15 gm fiber) is 5.54 min. cure time for natural rubber (sample 10) is 4.49 min.

4.2 Tensile Test

Tensile testing is carried out on a global testing machine called INSTRON 4411. Each test specimen in the dumbbell shape is fixed on the UTM INSTRON 4411 using pneumatic holders. Extensometers are coupled to a test model for measuring the extension. After the sample is fixed, the load is hydraulically applied until the deformation occurs. Tensile stress and tensile strain diagram are obtained on the screen. The values ​​of tensile strength and the percentage of length are obtained from the system. Tensile testing is performed by applying tensile loads to the sample. Various measurements are taken.









Fig4.4 Tensile Test Graph(natural rubber)  Table4.1 Tensile Test Results of Natural Rubber

From the above Fig, it is studied that. Among the three specimens of pure natural rubber, the first specimen having more tensile strength (10.493 MPa) mean of value is 9.3221 MPa.
Tensile testing is performed by applying tensile loads to the sample. Various measurements are taken










Fig 4.5 Tensile Test Graph Sample 9(1.5cm, 60gm Fiber) 4.2 Table Tensile Test 1.5cm , 60gm  Fiber












Fig 4.6 Tensile Test Graph Sample 4(1cm,15gm Fiber) Table 4.3 Tensile Test 1cm, 15gm  Fiber

From the table, the value of tensile strength is more for sample 9(1.5cm, 60gm fiber) and less for sample 7 (1.5cm, 15 gm fiber). The value of tensile strength for sample 9 is 8.793 MPa, and sample 4 is 3.353 MPa.

4.3 TEAR TEST

Tear test is carried on a universal testing machine, INSTRON 4411. Each test specimen, crescent-shaped, are fixed on the UTM INSTRON 4411 using pneumatic holders.








Fig 4.7 Tear Test Graph Sample 10(NR)  Table 4.4 Tear Test Sample 10(NR)

From the above graph and table, the value of tear strength for natural rubber is 32.756 N/mm, and load at rupture is 82.545 N.









Fig 4.8 Tear Test Graph Sample9(1.5cm, 60gm) Table 4.5 Tear Test Sample 9(1.5cm, 60gm )











Fig 4.9 Tear Test Graph Sample2 (0.5cm, 30gm) Table 4.6 Tear Test Sample 2(0.5cm, 30gm)

From the above tables, the value of tear strength is more for sample 9(1.5cm, 60gm fiber) and less for sample 2 (0.5cm, 30 gm fiber). The value of tear strength for sample 9 is 79.015 N/mm, and sample 2 is 38.437 N/mm. The load at the break for sample 9 is 223.555 N, and sample 2 is 100.665N.

CONCLUSION

The addition of natural fiber to natural rubber was found to reinforce the composite. The natural fiber added in specific quantities was found to increase in strength of the composite.

The time taken for the rubber to fully solidify from molten state is cure time. The cure time of rubber is found to increase with the addition of fiber. Maximum cure time is observed in the composite having the largest length and the greater quantity (sample 9).the least cure time among the composites was observed in the sample having the largest length and least quantity (sample7).

The tensile strength is the maximum stress a composite can withstand when stretched or pulled. The tensile strength of rubber is found to decrease with the addition of fiber. The maximum tensile strength is found to be with the sample having the largest length of the fiber and greatest amount of fiber ((sample 9).the least tensile strength is found to be with sample having 1cm length and least quantity (sample4).

Tear strength of rubber increases with addition of fiber. The tear strength is found to be greater for the composite having a larger length and larger fiber content (sample 9). Tear strength is found to be a minimum for composite sample 2.












REFERENCES


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